Die Europäische Kommission gegen Rassismus und Intoleranz (ECRI), ein Organ des Europarates, hat heute seinen aktuellsten Monitoring-Bericht zu Ungarn, der die Zeit von 2008 bis Ende 2014 abbildet, veröffentlicht. Die Kommission bestätigt gewisse Erfolge seit der letzten Erhebung, bringt jedoch auch ihre weiter bestehende Besorgnis zum Ausdruck.
Positiv wird erwähnt (Zitat):
„Hungary’s Criminal Code provisions on incitement to hatred and violence against a community as well as its non-discrimination legislation contain explicit references to sexual orientation and gender identity. The Act on Equal Treatment and Promotion of Equal Opportunities is widely considered a good instrument.
The structure and powers of the Equal Treatment Authority are now in line with the principles set out in ECRI’s General Policy Recommendations No. 2 and No. 7.
An amendment to the Act on the National Assembly was introduced in 2013 allowing members of Parliament to be fined or excluded from proceedings for abusive language or expressions offending the dignity of any national, ethnic, racial or religious community.
The Hungarian Guard Association was dissolved by the Metropolitan Court of Appeal in 2009 on account of its extreme right-wing paramilitary activities.
The Criminal Code now also includes the offence of abuse of freedom of assembly.
Following the “Roma murders” in 2008-2009, a specialised unit was set up in the police on hate crime and training sessions have been organised with the help of NGOs. Police constantly monitor areas at risk of conflict. They now also monitor files in cases of violence and can re-qualify an offence if any hate motivation is suspected.
As of 1 September 2015, it will be mandatory for all children to go to kindergarten from age three.
In October 2013 the Government adopted a Migration Strategy for 2014 to 2020 with a chapter on facilitating the integration of long-term residents and beneficiaries of international protection. Activities include awareness-raising campaigns to encourage a more open attitude towards migrants and promote a shift towards multiculturalism.“
(Monitoring-Bericht, S. 9)
Grund zur Besorgnis sieht die ECRI auf folgenden Gebieten (Bericht, S. 9f.):
„The application of criminal law provisions on incitement to hatred remains extremely limited. A radical right-wing populist party openly engages in anti-Roma, antisemitic, homophobic and xenophobic hate speech. However, hate speech is not restricted to extremist parties and groups but occurs across the political spectrum. On some occasions calling for counter speech the authorities have remained silent. As a result of the climate of impunity, derogatory remarks about Roma, Jews, LGBT persons, asylum seekers and refugees have become commonplace in the public sphere.
Some media publish or broadcast blatantly racist material. Cyberhate poses a particular challenge and Hungary has still not ratified the Additional Protocol to the Convention on Cybercrime.
Racist violence against Roma is one of the most important problems in Hungary. Paramilitary groups have been marching and organising demonstrations and illegal patrols in villages, harassing and intimidating the Roma community in their own neighbourhoods. Between January 2008 and September 2012, 61 separate attacks took place resulting in the death of nine Roma, including two minors, and dozens of injuries. The situation improved in 2013.
The Budapest Pride parade has been the target of homophobic attacks by neo-Nazi groups. More recently, migrants, asylum seekers and refugees have been victims of racist violence.
Hungary’s National Social Inclusion Strategy has had little impact so far. It does not address segregation in education. Disproportionate numbers of Roma children continue to be placed in schools for pupils with learning disabilities. Roma occupy the most disadvantaged position in the labour market. The shortage of social housing persists and efforts by the Government to improve access to housing are sometimes obstructed by local authorities; Roma are often forced out of social housing in order for apartments or land to be sold at a profit.
The current measures for beneficiaries of international protection are ineffective in equipping them with the skills and support necessary for integration. Refugees face many problems in practice, notably homelessness; sleeping in certain public places can now lead to criminal sanctions.
Around 22% of all asylum seekers are deprived of their liberty, mostly in asylum detention facilities with very poor living conditions, harsh treatment by guards and lack of access to legal aid or assistance from civil society.“